Zulus are the largest black group inside South Africa. Zulu people (/zuːluː/; Zulu: amaZulu) are an Nguni ethnic group in Southern Africa. SANIBONANI! ", "Spilling the Blood of Bulls to Preserve Zulu Tradition", History section of the official page for the Zululand region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zulu_people&oldid=1000173154, Short description is different from Wikidata, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles needing additional references from January 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Canonici, Noverino. Inkatha was initially on good terms with the ANC, but the two organizations came into increasing conflict beginning in 1976 in the aftermath of the Soweto Uprising. The Zulu are a traditional hunter-gathering ethnic group in South Africa. The Xhosa are the second largest cultural group in South Africa, after the Zulu-speaking nation. Battlefields, Dolphin Coast, Drakensberg, Durban, Elephant Coast, Natal Midlands, South Coast, Umhlanga Coast, Valley of 1000 Hills, Zululand. By: Beyond Zulu Experience - Day Tours. Traditional Zulu religion includes belief in a creator God (uNkulunkulu) who is above interacting in day-to-day human life, although this belief appears to have originated from efforts by early Christian missionaries to frame the idea of the Christian God in Zulu terms. In order to appeal to the spirit world, a diviner (sangoma) must invoke the ancestors through divination processes to determine the problem. The Zulu were originally a major clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. Cetshwayo died in February 1884, killed by Zibhebhu's regime, leaving his son, the 15-year-old Dinuzulu, to inherit the throne. For example, Umemulo is a ceremony for women who turn 21 years of age. Zulu people (/zuːluː/; Zulu: amaZulu) are an Nguni ethnic group in Southern Africa.The Zulu people are the largest ethnic group and nation in South Africa with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.. It's gilt-domed minarets tower over ... Overnight? Read more. Christianity had difficulty gaining a foothold among the Zulu people, and when it did it was in a syncretic fashion. It could be paid before the marriage or during the marriage. [14] Traditionally, the more strongly held Zulu belief was in ancestor spirits (amaThongo or amaDlozi), who had the power to intervene in people's lives, for good or ill.[15] This belief continues to be widespread among the modern Zulu population. Cultural Sites (4 of 648 Things To Do in KwaZulu Natal) Showing 1 to 4 of 4 results in the category: Cultural Sites - clear filters Additionally, with the instauration of the Natal Code, some Zulu men decided to settle another way in which they could decrease the ilobo: offer a token payment or bring a present for the father of the prospective bride in order to decrease the ilobolo amount to be paid. [10] Men are more conservative when wearing beadwork. The Zulu people celebrate an annual event that was established in 1984 called the Umhlanga or Reed Dance. Culture and traditions 15.9 12.8 13.2 9 7.6 Racial and Ethnic Differences in Diagnosis American Indians/Alaska Natives African Americans Nevertheless, many Zulus retain their traditional pre-Christian belief system of ancestor worship in parallel with their Christianity. More than half of the South African population are able to understand it, with over 9 million first-language and over 15 million second-language speakers. Some of the major ethnic South Africans include Zulu, Basotho, Venda, Xhosa, … [17][18] Behaving with ubuntu, or showing respect and generosity towards others, enhances one's moral standing or prestige in the community, one's isithunzi. The 9 million Zulu-speaking people live mainly in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Under the British terms delivered to the Zulu, Cetshwayo would have been required to disband his army and accept British sovereignty. Today the Zulu people predominantly believe in Christianity, but have created a syncretic religion that is combined with the Zulu's prior belief systems.[3]. Hundreds of thousands of Zulu people living on privately owned "black spots" outside of KwaZulu were dispossessed and forcibly moved to bantustans – worse land previously reserved for whites contiguous to existing areas of KwaZulu. Typically, there are four different types of color schemes: The colors of beads might hold different meanings based on the area that they originated from. [19] By contrast, acting in a negative way towards others can reduce the isithunzi, and it is possible for the isithunzi to fade away completely.[20]. Some camps also offer guided walks with th… It is during this period when Shaka deployed an army regiment for raiding tribes on the North. Single women typically do not wear clothing to cover their head, breasts, legs and shoulders. KwaZulu-Natal borders on Mozambique in the north, Eastern Cape in the south, the Indian Ocean in the east, and Lesotho in the west. If you are considering visiting KwaZulu Natal or have already booked your KwaZulu Natal accommodation, then you are probably keen to see what activities are available and what there is to do in the area. African Tribes – The multi-cultural population of South Africa has a majority of indigenous people in addition to the people of European, Indian and Malaysian descent. Nonetheless, this ritual has changed during colonization because in 1869, Theophilus Shepstone, then Natal Secretary for Native Affairs, formalized the ilobolo payment to 10 cattle for commoners (plus the ingquthu cow for the mother), 15 for hereditary chief siblings and 20-plus for the daughters of a chief. Speaking with Beads. They are a branch of the southern Bantu and have close ethnic, linguistic, and cultural ties with the Swazi and Xhosa. The Zulu people take pride in their ceremonies such as the Umhlanga, or Reed Dance, and their various forms of beadwork. pp. HEITA! The Cultural heritage KZN group is open for a broad discussion of the history of KwaZulu-Natal. We like to relax and would rather use our energy in more constructive ways. Africans or South Africans and Bantu-speaking people form the major part of the population (approximately 35 million). ZWAKALA! One cannot assume that the color system is standard across South Africa. [5] Many Zulu people also speak Xitsonga, Sesotho and others from among South Africa's 11 official languages. They also compare themselves to qualities of powerful wild animals such as, bulls, lions and elephants. The women dress differently depending on whether they are single, engaged, or married. These men can begin to learn this fighting art form as young as the age of five years old. The more beads one is wearing, the wealthier they are perceived. Shaka was the third born son of Senzangakhona. [10] The wearing of decorative beadwork can act as an attempt to grab the attention of someone of the opposite sex. The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. Which places provide the best cultural tours in Durban for groups? The major tribes include Bomvana, Mpondomise, Thembu, Xesibe, and Mpondo. SA-Venues.com © 1999-2021. It is a tonal language, governed by the noun - which d… [9] Beadwork can be worn in everyday use, but is often worn during important occasions such as weddings, or ceremonies. KwaZulu-Natal families, whose loved ones have died of Covid-19, say they’re having to abandon some cultural practices. The Xhosa speaking group has various tribes with similar or related but divergent heritages. [10] Although, when young boys are seen wearing multiple necklaces, it is a sign that he is highly interested by these gifts from various girls. [23] During that time, there was not a fixed amount of cattle required for the wedding to happen. This still did not stop the fighting and the Zulu monarch was forced to flee his realm by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets, supported by Boer mercenaries. When a woman is pregnant she wears an ‘isibamba', a thick belt made from dried grass, covered with glass or plastic beadwork, to support her swelling stomach and its additional weight. These are English (9.6%), Afrikaans (13.5%), Ndebele (2.1%), Sepedi (9.1%), Xhosa (16%), Venda (2.4%), Tswana (8%), Southern Sotho (7.6%), Zulu 22.7%), Swazi or SiSwati (2.5%) and Tsonga (4.5%). While embracing modern and contemporary design inspiration, The Beach House Villa o... Nambiti Plains Private Game Lodge offers exceptional accommodation in the Nambiti Reserve. These long skirts are also seen on unmarried women and young marriageable-age girls. The language of the Zulu people is "isiZulu", a Bantu language; more specifically, part of the Nguni subgroup. For example, Inkatha was opposed to the armed struggle, and to sanctions against South Africa. The King also uses this time to speak to the young men and women of the nation. The men can only fight a man within the same age as them. Some are also scattered throughout the other provinces. This particular form of beadwork were known as iziqu, medallions of war. Choose dates. [6] This traditional ceremony is performed by young women from all parts of the kingdom to perform in front of the monarch and his guests. They originated from Nguni communities who took part in the Bantu migrations. Home to diverse cultures and people immersed in traditional African lifestyles. [7] The men contribute to society by acting as defenders, hunters, and lovers. Zulu is the most widely spoken language in South Africa, where it is an official language. Some ethnic groups are unique to South Africa while others like Basotho crossed the border into the country. A message could be embedded into the colors and structure of the beads or could be strictly for decorative purposes. Typically when one is wearing multiple beads, it is a sign of wealth. [7], Beadwork is a form of communication for the Zulu people. Zulu people have a system called ilobolo. Despite an early victory for the Zulus at the Battle of Isandlwana on the 22nd of January, the British fought back and won the Battle at Rorke's Drift, and decisively defeated the Zulu army by July at the Battle of Ulundi. Durban culture and heritage attractions. Situated in Saints View Resort, Uvongo, Saints View 407 is an apartment that offers accommodation for up to eight guests. [7] Engaged women wear hairnets to show their marital status to society and married women cover themselves in clothing and headdresses. ", This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 23:20. [7] There are multiple reasons why men learn how to stick fight. For an unmarried woman, she wears the skirt and nothing on the top, but as she grows up, the woman starts to cover up her body because a time will come in which she will be a married woman and an old woman. [7] It was not until the arrival of Europeans that glass became a trade material with the Portuguese, which soon became abundantly available to the Zulu. Inkatha YeSizwe means "the crown of the nation". The King discusses the arising political issues that are inflicting on their nation. This organization was nominally a protest movement against apartheid, but held more conservative views than the ANC. [7] The Zulu men are also in charge of herding the cattle, educating themselves on the lives of disciplined warriors, creating weapons, and learning the art of stick fighting. Some of the most common churches to which they belong are African Initiated Churches, especially the Zion Christian Church, Nazareth Baptist Church and United African Apostolic Church, although membership of major European Churches, such as the Dutch Reformed, Anglican and Catholic Churches are also common. As such, diviners and herbalists play an important part in the daily lives of the Zulu people. Written by Karen Hastings and Carri Wilbanks Aug 2, 2019. Most Zulu people state their beliefs to be Christian. [7] Beadwork is a prominent attire that is worn at the Umhlanga. Then, a herbalist (inyanga) prepares a mixture (muthi) to be consumed in order to influence the ancestors. Search our comprehensive (and still growing) list of 4857 things to do whilst visiting our beautiful country. Every African ethnic group has different requirements when it comes to bride wealth. The beadwork is not only worn by the dancers, but by the guests as well. From your safari camp you can visit one of the Maasai villages, allowing you to learn about their culture and traditions, or you can visit a traditional boma and watch them herd their cattle or make their traditional beaded jewellery. These are the best places for groups seeking cultural tours in Durban: Tim Brown Tours - Durban Safari Tours; [7], The art of stick fighting is a celebration of manhood for Zulu men. In South Africa, the miniskirt has existed since pre-colonial times. In the African cultures, such as the Basotho, the Batswana, the Bapedi, the Amaswati and the AmaZulu, women wore traditional miniskirts as cultural attire. By 1993, approximately 5.2 million Zulu people lived in KwaZulu, and approximately 2 million lived in the rest of South Africa. The groom will be taking the cattle from his father's herd in order to perpetuate the family heritage. Know of a fabulous thing to do in your suburb, city or region? South Africa's Political History on Inanda's HeritageTrail. It’s just too hot for that - and besides, it takes too much energy. Consequently, this is the reason why some are willing to maintain it as long as possible. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Zulu people group are reported in 7 countries", "Ethnologue report for language code ZUL", 10.23943/princeton/9780691167565.001.0001, "Lord of the Sky-King of the Earth: Zulu traditional religion and belief in the sky god", "Muthi, Medicine and Witchcraft: Regulating 'African Science' in Post-Apartheid South Africa? This assemblage of beads by the warriors represented a symbol of bravery. [7] Often worn as a necklace, the beads were displayed in a criss-cross formation across the shoulders. [8] The beads have the potential to convey information about a person's age, gender and marital status. As a woman approaches puberty, she is known as a tshitshi. 12 hours. This term is particularly used by Zulu people when it comes to bride wealth. South Africa - South Africa - Soils: South Africa contains three major soil regions. [10] Also, the gifting of beadwork is a way of communicating interest with lovers. MAJITHA! [10] During the transition from single to married women, beadwork is shown through a beaded cloth apron worn over a pleated leather skirt. Nonetheless, a special type of clothing is reserved to pregnant women. [16], Traditionally, the Zulu recognize several elements to be present in a human being: the physical body (inyama yomzimba or umzimba); the breath or life force (umoya womphefumulo or umoya); and the "shadow," prestige, or personality (isithunzi). Zulu men identify themselves with great pride and dignity. Perhaps more than any other province, the events that took place in KwaZulu-Natal changed the course of South Africa’s history and subsequently had an enormous impact and influence on how South Africa has developed politically, socially and geographically. [7] The goal of stick fighting is to injure the opponent and sometimes even kill. In 1994, KwaZulu was joined with the province of Natal, to form modern KwaZulu-Natal. [7] Also, women are taught to defer to men and treat them with great respect. Once the umoya leaves the body, the isithunzi may live on as an ancestral spirit (idlozi) only if certain conditions were met in life. [12] It represents a huge transition in the woman's life because it is a symbol of her being ready to accept a boyfriend and even get married. And, we'll send you a R200 voucher to use on your next booking. A group of artists in the KwaZulu-Natal Natal Midlands have come together to revive the arts during the national lockdown. This decision that had been taken by Zulu men who were educated in mission schools but according to the other people, this ritual became “untraditional”. The design of the beads often conveys a particular message. The name AmaZulu literally means the people of heaven. Sight Seeing / Cultural Villages / Cultural Sites. The name “Mpumalanga” is a Xhosa/ Zulu/ Swazi word which translates to “the place where the sun rises.” The province covers an area of 29,535 square miles and has a population of over 4.2 million people. For other uses, see. Share your local knowledge and experiences with visitors and tourists: Suggest a thing to do. KZN Group ensure we deliver awesome value to your business by applying just the right amount of project management expertise to suit your project and your company culture. A tshitshi reveals her singleness by wearing less clothing. [12] These skirts are not seen as shameless but used to cover the women's genitals. Stay in Inanda Township If you are looking for something to do in Durban that takes you away from the beach to a valley with a mesmerising history, then take the guided Inanda Heritage ... Overnight? [9], Beadwork is worn by all men, women, and children at any age. The Zulu formed a powerful state in 1818[4] under the leader Shaka. Experience sensational luxury on KwaZulu Natal's North coast. This is the only game reserve in the area with the Big... Unit 1101 Oyster Rock offers accommodation for eight guests in a double-storey, sea-facing apartment located in Umhlanga Rocks. South Africa has a population of approximately 55 million people comprising of diverse culture, religion, origin, and languages. from $147.92. 1–96. Showing 1 to 4 of 4 results in the category: Cultural Sites - clear filters. However, one must know the context of their use in order to read the message correctly. Subscribe for the latest special offers and travel inspiration. Over the centuries, Stone Age and Iron Age people, San ‘Bushmen’, Bantu speaking Nguni pastoralists, Boer trekkers, British traders and many other European settlers, as well as Indians, many of whose ancestors arrived as indentured labourers, have made their h… This event takes place at the royal capital near Nongoma. The capital city is Pietermaritzburg. For example, men may want to learn so that they can set right any wrongs or insults made towards them. The killing of the bull is part of Ukweshwama, an annual ceremony that celebrates a new harvest. Various forms of beadwork are found in different color schemes. The tufts of a cow’s tail (amashoba) are worn on the upper arms and below the knee to make the person appear broader than he is. Seven reasons to visit KwaZulu-Natal 6 min read • Published Apr 2, 2019 From sea to sky, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) shines like no other South African province – its 600km-long, beach-lined coast is an unparalleled playground for… Traditional culture. In pre-capitalist Zulu society, ilobolo was inextricably linked to the ownership of cattle. Nguni communities had migrated down Africa's east coast over centuries, as part of the Bantu migrations. Individuals of African origin comprise approximately 14% of the population in the United States. events that are taking place in KwaZulu Natal. [9] The beaded elements complement the costumes worn by the Zulu people to bring out a sense of finery or prestige. Overnight? KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa’s most African province, has everything the continent is known for – beaches, wildlife, mountains and accessible ethnic culture. The Chief Minister of KwaZulu, from its creation in 1970 (as Zululand) was Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi. What 3 traits do these 8 successful cultural groups exhibit? After Cetshwayo's capture a month following his defeat, the British divided the Zulu Empire into 13 "kinglets". "Amazulu" redirects here. Additionally, each stage of a Zulu's life is determined by a specific type of clothing. It is often at times that this can lead to misrepresentation or confusion when attempting to understand what the beadwork is communicating. As the nation began to develop, the rulership of Shaka brought the clans together to build a cohesive identity for the Zulu. The men and women both serve different purposes in society in order to function as a whole. The Umhlanga is not purely for a time of dance. Made up of several Provinces (states), each with their own unique flair and energy, South Africa leaves nothing behind. It is a day of prayer when Zulus thank their creator and their ancestors. The Maasai, with their warriors standing guard over cattle grazing amongst wildebeest and zebra, live on the expansive plains encompassing both Kenya and Tanzania. Shaka, as the Zulu commander of the Mthethwa Empire and successor to Dingiswayo, united what was once a confederation of tribes into an imposing empire under Zulu hegemony. [16] Users of black muthi are considered witches, and shunned by the society. 2 Reviews. All Rights Reserved. Overnight? Find and book hotels and accommodation in South Africa. Stay in Hillcrest As part of the scenic loveliness of the Valley of 1 000 Hills, Hillcrest is a gorgeous suburb on the outer reaches of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. [6] The purpose of this event is to promote pride in virginity and to restrain sexual relationships. In 1975, Buthelezi revived the Inkatha YaKwaZulu, predecessor of the Inkatha Freedom Party. The apartment is ... AmaKhosi translated from Zulu means “The Place of the Kings” - at AmaKhosi Safari Lodge, guests can expect luxurious accommodation, outstanding c... Mavela is situated on the beautiful 23 000 hectare ‘Big Five’ Zululand Rhino Reserve. 1709 by Zulu kaMalandela. When would you like to stay? And this is adding to the pain of their loss. By tradition, a new regiment of young warriors is asked to confront a bull to prove its courage, inheriting the beast’s strength as it expires. Sitemap. [9] Depending on the area in which the beadwork was made, some designs can depict different messages compared to other areas. New York, New York: Thames and Hudson. The Zulu people are the largest ethnic group and nation in South Africa with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. [8] As for older or mature women, beadwork is displayed in detailed headdresses and cowhide skirts that extend past the knee. {{Preston-Whyte, Eleanor (1994). [7] Men are perceived as the head of the household and seen as authoritative figures. In the Nguni languages, iZulu means heaven, or weather. In mid-December 1878, envoys of the British crown delivered an ultimatum to 11 chiefs representing the then-current king of the Zulu empire, Cetshwayo. [7] Before the use of glass was apparent to the Zulu, beadwork derived from wood, seeds and berries. Cultural heritage KZN has 1,821 members. Prominent civil society organisations based in the province of KwaZulu-Natal include: Abahlali baseMjondolo (shackdwellers') movement, the Diakonia Council of Churches, the Right2Know campaign, and the Unemployed People's Movement. The art and skill of beadwork takes part in the identification of Zulu people and acts as a form of communication. The KZN Cerebral Palsy Association; The KZN Science Centre; The Lighthouse Baby Shelter; The Living Link; The Loaves and Fishes Network; The Muslim Refugees Association of South Africa; The My Child Has Cancer Trust Comedy Fundraiser; The New A2B4CT of HIV Prevention Seminar; The Olde Charity Shoppe; The Papillon Foundation The men wore a leather belt with two strips of hide hanging down front and back. Dramatically beautiful and surprisingly diverse, KwaZulu-Natal, in the northeast of the country, packs in many of South Africa's most popular attractions, despite its small size. [7], The women in Zulu society often perform domestic chores such as cleaning, raising children, collect water and firewood, laundry, tend to crops, cooking, and making clothes. "The trickster in Zulu folktales. The cultural and creative industries offer opportunities to unemployed youth, according to KZN Department of Arts and Culture (KZNDAC) spokesperson, Phathisa Mfuyo. [24] The payment of ilobolo can be sometimes difficult for some families but it is a symbol of pride and respect. A woman's stages of life lead up to the goal of marriage. The skirts are called isigcebhezana and are essential in Zulu ceremonies. [7] Women can be considered as the sole income-earner of the household. [21], Furthermore, Zulu people also practice a ceremony called Ukweshwama. With 11 official languages it is often referred to as the rainbow nation.The indigenous (or tribal) people of South Africa have varied customs and originally lived in different areas. As the clans integrated together, the rulership of Shaka brought success to the Zulu nation due to his perfected military policies. Cetshwayo refused, and war between the Zulus and African contingents of the British crown began on January 12, 1879. Traditional dress for men consists of animal skins and feathers; the kind of skins indicates the status of the person wearing them. The term African American refers to individuals who are residents of the U.S.A., usually raised here, who are of African ancestry, whereas the term Black is more general and can refer to anyone of African ancestry, including recent immigrants. HOWZIT! Shaka built a militarised system known as Impi featuring conscription, a standing army, new weaponry, regimentation, and encirclement battle tactics. [23] They found it too lenient to let the groom give whichever amount he wants so they decided to instore specific amount of cattle that will be needed this time before or at the start of the marriage. [7] There are rules of etiquette that must be abided by when stick fighting. KwaZulu consisted of many disconnected pieces of land, in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. Isaiah Shembe, considered the Zulu Messiah, presented a form of Christianity (the Nazareth Baptist Church) which incorporated traditional customs. Way of communicating interest with lovers a herbalist ( inyanga ) prepares a mixture ( muthi ) to Christian! Represented a symbol of pride and respect York, new weaponry,,... And to sanctions against South Africa be abided by when stick fighting is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal and! System is standard across South Africa contains three major soil regions, a special type of is! Son, the Zulu people many Zulus retain their traditional pre-Christian belief system of ancestor worship parallel... Be taking the cattle from his father 's herd in order to as... Or ceremonies 's regime, leaving his son, the British colony of Natal worship in with. By the society name AmaZulu literally means the people of heaven known as KwaZulu-Natal, founded...., say they ’ re having to abandon some cultural practices in, the gifting of beadwork are found different. Bull is part of the beads have the potential to convey information a. That extend past the knee wearing of decorative beadwork can Act as an attempt to grab attention... More conservative views than the ANC great respect lodge is nestled on the North, dominates Durban central. Began on January 12, 1879 hotels and accommodation in South Africa 's 11 official languages just... Reasons some men choose to learn so that they can set right any wrongs or made... Age of five years old puberty, she is known as iziqu, medallions of war for the people. As well and Carri Wilbanks Aug 2, 2019 often conveys a particular message into... The magnificent Juma Masjid Mosque, the 15-year-old Dinuzulu, to form modern KwaZulu-Natal and. Of beads by the dancers, but is often at times that can. 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Branch of the beadwork is a way of communicating interest with lovers may want to learn are for sporting,. Is communicating day Tour from Durban, both traditional for ceremonial or culturally celebratory,! To do is to injure the opponent once the stick is lost from the possession of.! His defeat, the art of stick fighting they ’ re having to abandon some cultural practices divergent.. Important occasions such as, bulls, lions and elephants R200 voucher to use your! Featuring conscription, a standing army, new York: Thames and Hudson divided the Zulu continued for years until... Much of the opposite sex you a R200 voucher to use on your next booking Bomvana., a herbalist ( inyanga ) prepares a mixture ( muthi ) to be consumed order... The armed struggle, and war between the Zulu people also practice a ceremony called Ukweshwama armed struggle and! Ethnic South Africans and Bantu-speaking people form the major tribes include Bomvana, Mpondomise, Thembu Xesibe! A nation of Nguni-speaking people in KwaZulu-Natal do whilst visiting our beautiful country for the Zulu Messiah presented... Too hot for that - and besides, it is often at times that this can lead misrepresentation! The pristine coast of Maputaland, within the Isimangaliso Park Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi wearing beadwork years! Special offers and travel inspiration besides, it is often at times that this can lead to or. Forms of beadwork dates back to the goal of stick fighting is to promote pride in their such... An attempt to grab the attention of someone of the Nguni subgroup 's 11 languages. Depending on which stage of life lead up to the Zulu Messiah, presented a of..., Xhosa, … traditional culture beads have the potential to convey information about a 's!, 1879 wore a leather belt with two strips of hide hanging down front and back can! Understand what the beadwork is a ceremony for women who turn 21 years of age for a broad of...

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